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European Society of Cardiology (ESC) / European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation (EACPR) 2005: Recommendations for participation in leisure-time physical activities and competitive sports for patients with hypertension

Blood pressure increases with age. Systolic blood pressure continues to increase throughout adult life, related to
progressive arterial stiffening, whereas diastolic blood pressure plateaus in the sixth decade of life and decreases
thereafter [1].


European society of Cardiology (ESC) 2006: Recommendations for participation in competitive and leisure sports in patients with congenital heart disease: a consensus document

Numerous scientific reports have documented the positive effects of physical activity on public health in general
[1–3] and on cardiovascular health in particular [4].


European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 2006: Recommendations for participation in competitive sport and leisure-time physical activity in individuals with cardiomyopathies, myocarditis and pericarditis

Participation in regular exercise and sport by individuals with known cardiovascular (CV) disease conveys a
number of clinical and ethical questions, including the most appropriate exercise programme and sport activities in which patients may safely be engaged


European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 2007: Recommendations for the management of individuals with acquired valvular heart diseases who are involved in leisure-time physical activities or competitive sports

Several epidemiologic studies have assessed the relationship between physical exercise and the risk of sudden
cardiac death (SCD) in atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, which is responsible for the vast majority of SCD
in the middle-aged and older athletes.


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